Immunology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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He is supported by an Executive Advisory Group and two sub groups:. These two groups bring together clinical specialists from across WA to look at clinical service improvement opportunities in infectious diseases and immunology.

Register to join Health Networks external site and receive the latest information about the Infections and Immunology Health Network and updates from our other networks. The Department of Health develops models of care, frameworks and guidelines to provide a cohesive and consistent plan for health care across WA. Implementation of these resources occurs in partnership with the Health Service Providers and other organisations involved in health care. For consumer information on infections and Immunology visit HealthyWA external site.

Go back to Top. Search this site Search all sites. Ct has a number of serovars which cause different types of pathology; A—C are responsible for ocular infections trachoma and are a major cause of blindness particularly in the developing world; D—K cause the common sexually transmitted infection and L1 and L2 cause the severe pathology of lymphogranuloma venereum. In men, untreated sexual transmitted Ct can cause complications such as urethritis Stamm and Cole, and chronic prostatitis Skerk, Studies have also shown that men with Ct have poorer quality sperm compared to healthy counterparts Hosseinzadeh, However, in women infection can have devastating and long-term effects on reproductive health.

Ct has been associated with urethritis , pelvic inflammatory disease , scarring in the pelvis such as adhesions , and fertility complications including ectopic pregnancy, infertility, miscarriage and premature rupture of membranes Paavonen and Lehtinen, ; Falk et al. Normally the female reproductive tract does not have associated organised lymphoid tissue but there are dendritic cells , macrophages and a few resident lymphocytes scattered throughout the four main epithelial areas, the vagina , the cervix , the uterus and the Fallopian tubes Givan et al.

Ct infecti on usually occurs in the lower genital tract and attracts different types of immune cells such as lymphocytes , macrophages and dendritic cells to infiltrate the epithelium.

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Ct infection can persist for several years and reinfection is common. It has been shown that reinfection can result in a strong secondary immune response and the increased inflammation may cause further damage to the reproductive tract. This has been suggested to be the case in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease Hillis et al.

Microbiology & Immunology

If the infection spreads higher up the tract to the uterus and Fallopian tubes, the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility due to tubal damage is high. It remains unclear how much damage is caused by Ct and how much by the host immune response Shaw et al. Ct is diagnosed by urinary testing or genital swab.

There is currently no vaccine for Ct. Much more research is needed to understand the balance between the immune response and the growth of the organism to develop more effective ways of controlling this infection and preventing the reproductive dysfunction that it is associated with. Baud, D. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17, Falk, L.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases

Signs and symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis among women with or without Mycoplasma genitalium or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sexually Transmitted Infections 81, Givan, A. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes in the human female reproductive tract: comparison of fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vagina. Hafner, L. Chlamydia trachomatis infection: host immune responses and potential vaccines.


Mucosal Immunology 1, Hillis, S. Recurrent chlamydial infections increase the risks of hospitalization for ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Hosseinzadeh, S. Chlamydia trachomatis-induced death of human spermatozoa is caused primarily by lipopolysaccharide.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases - 2nd Edition

Journal of Medical Microbiology 52, Howie, S. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: known unknowns. Discovery Medicine 12, Immunity and vaccines against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 24, Loomis, W.

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  • T cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis. Current Opinion in Microbiology 5, Manavi, K.

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    A review on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Paavonen, J. Chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Human Reproduction Update 2,

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Reproductive Health