### Relativistic Cosmology: An Introduction

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Newtonian cosmology in Lagrangian formulation: Foundations and perturbation theory - Ehlers, Jurgen et al. Inhomogeneity effects in Cosmology - Ellis, George F. Ellis and H. Cosmological models Cargse lectures Theoretical and observational Grav. Lachize-Rey eds. Newtonian evolution of the Weyl tensor - Ellis, G. Ellis and C.

## Phys. Rev. 98, () - Relativistic Cosmology. I

Tsagas Relativistic. Tetrad-based perturbative approach to inhomogeneous universes: A general relativistic version of the Zel'dovich approximation - Kasai, Masumi Phys. D52 On the Abundance of collapsed objects - Kerscher, Martin et al. Equations of gravitational instability are nonlocal - Kofman, Lev et al.

Backreaction of inhomogeneities can mimic dark energy - Kolb, Edward W. Lante Zur. Diploma thesis.

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Testing backreaction effects with observations - Larena, Julien et al. D79 arXiv PostNewtonian cosmological dynamics in Lagrangian coordinates - Matarrese, Sabino et al.

## The relativistic Universe

General relativistic dynamics of irrotational dust: Cosmological implications - Matarrese, Sabino et al. Matarrese, O. Pantano and D. A relativistic approach to gravitational instability in the expanding Universe - second-Order Lagrangian solutions. Matarrese, S. Mollerach and M. Bruni Relativistic. Ostermann Grundlagen. Rsnen Accelerated. Backreaction: directions of progress - Rasanen, Syksy Class. Relativistic cosmological perturbation scheme on a general background: Scalar perturbations for irrotational dust - Roy, Xavier et al. The Zeldovich type approximation for an inhomogeneous universe in general relativity: Second order solutions - Russ, Heinz et al.

Age of the universe: Influence of the inhomogeneities on the global expansion factor - Russ, Heinz et al. Approximation methods for nonlinear gravitational clustering - Sahni, Varun et al. The Large scale structure of the universe: Turbulence, intermittency, structures in a selfgravitating medium - Schandarin, S. Wainwright and G. Gravitational instability: An Approximate theory for large density perturbations - Zeldovich, Ya. Zeldovich Separation of uniform matter into parts under the action of gravitation.

Longair and J. Einasto eds. IAU Symp. The foreground at 78 MHz is times higher than the claimed signal. This was found using IR survey data as an IR source that was very faint optically due to absorption by neutral hydrogen at nm, redshifted to a wavelength of about nm. Chuck, David, Gary, Lyman and Norm looked good in tuxes.

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The ratio of CDM to baryons is 5. A flat Universe is assumed. In their Figure 2, the non-accelerating Universe line touches the 3 sigma contour. In the standard analysis a similar Figure 3rd figure on my Supernova Cosmology page shows the 4 sigma contour hitting the non-accelerating Universe line. This is not a big deal in any case, but more importantly the new statistical analysis is wrong. It assumes that the intrinsic luminosities of the supernovae in the observed sample are not correlated with their redshifts, and this assumption is easily shown to be false.

The high redshift part of the JLA sample is on average brighter than the low redshift part, because distant low luminosity objects are harder to find, an effect long known to astronomers as the Malmquist bias. This burst of radiation had one millionth as much energy as the gravitational wave burst. The false alarm probablity is 0.

The technical paper shows that a merger of two black holes of 36 and 29 solar masses occurred Megaparsecs away leaving a 62 solar mass remnant, with 3 solar masses radiated away in gravitational waves. The peak strain was 10 , and the last cycle of the signal was 7 milliseconds long.

The peak luminosity was equivalent to annihilating solar masses per second.

The signal was seen 14 Sep at UTC by both Hanford and Livingston, with a 7 ms time difference pointing to a localization on the sky covering hundreds of square degrees in the Southern hemisphere. A new window on the Universe has been opened. Papers describing the event rate based on two events, the astrophysical implications , and many other analyses are all on arxiv.

They are also on the LIGO website. This now the highest spectroscopically confirmed redshift. Actually that depends on what you mean by "we", since the result confirms the default opinion that dark matter does not interact with itself, although some theorists hoped that it did. Many more examples like the "Bullet Cluster" have been found, where the dark matter in two colliding clusters passes right through the collision without interacting. These systems are also trouble for MOND theories, since the source of gravity is not following the normal matter. Technical preprints are available on the arxiv.

The above values are from CMB data alone. The baryon density is known to 0. The dark energy density is known to 2.

### Minkowski Spacetime

For theorists who set hbar and c to 1, it works out to 2. We still have no good theory to explain this value. The B-modes from lensing are well detected, and the primordial B-modes from inflation are not yet seen. The Cosmology Calculator has been updated to use these as default values. Marsh etal already have a paper using this result to constrain axion dark matter on the arxiv preprint server, posted less than 5 hours after the announcement.

Update: More papers on arxiv. But I have some concerns about this result. The experimenters switched from a two frequency design to a single frequency design in order to get the highest possible signal to noise. This leaves them vulnerable to polarized foregrounds. In addition, both WMAP and Planck have placed upper limits on this signal that are lower than the claimed detection. But these upper limits are based on subtle features in the CMB angular power spectrum, so it may be the case that other parameters can be adjusted to accommodate all of these experiments.

These results are detailed in a paper by Anderson et al. The cross-over frequency is proportional to the temperature of the blackbody background that is being scattered. This result is very similar to a paper by Hurier et al.